The article presents relationship between history and management. Methodological inspirations between these disciplines have been shown and also the achievements carried out within the history of business and organizational theory have been described. The author has characterized the “historical turn” in organizational researches in the 1990s of XX century. In the subsequent part of the article, three methodological approaches have been characterized, namely: narrative research and storytelling, business history, and historical perspective in organizational research. The achievements of Polish researchers in the distinguished areas of research were taken into account. At the end, barriers to greater interest of using the historical perspective in the research of organizations, conducted by Polish researchers, have been presented. They are as follows: small share of historical knowledge in the education of management adepts, domination of a historical paradigms in organization and management research, the lack of continuity in the development of Polish organizations and scientific reflection on organizations and management in the 20th century and low historical awareness of Polish entrepreneurs and managers.
The requirements for environmentally friendly refrigerants promote application of CO2and water as working fluids. However there are two problems related to that, namely high temperature limit for CO2in condenser due to the low critical temperature, and low temperature limit for water being the result of high triple point temperature. This can be avoided by application of the hybrid adsorption-compression system, where water is the working fluid in the adsorption high temperature cycle used to cool down the CO2compression cycle condenser. The adsorption process is powered with a low temperature renewable heat source as solar collectors or other waste heat source. The refrigeration system integrating adsorption and compression system has been designed and constructed in the Laboratory of Thermodynamics and Thermal Machine Measurements of Cracow University of Technology. The heat source for adsorption system consists of 16 tube tulbular collectors. The CO2compression low temperature cycle is based on two parallel compressors with frequency inverter. Energy efficiency and TEWI of this hybrid system is quite promising in comparison with the compression only systems.
There are certain well-known methods of diminishing concentrations of nitrogen compounds, but they are ineffective in case of nitrogen-rich wastewater with a low content of biodegradable carbon. Partial nitritation followed by anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process appear to be an excellent alternative for traditional nitrification and denitrification. This paper presents the feasibility of successful start-up of Anammox process in a laboratory-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR). It was shown that the combination of membrane technology and Anammox process allowed to create a new highly efficient and compact system for nitrogen removal. It was possible to achieve average nitrogen removal efficiency equal to 76.7 ± 8.3%. It was shown that the start-up period of 6 months was needed to obtain high nitrogen removal efficiency. The applied biochemical model of the Anammox process was based on the state-of-the-art Activated Sludge Model No.1 (ASM 1) which was modified for accounting activity of autotrophs (nitrite-oxidising bacteria and nitrateoxidising bacteria) and anammox bacteria. In order to increase the predictive power of the simulation selected parameters of the model were adjusted during model calibration. Readjustment of the model parameters based on the critically evaluated data of the reactor resulted in a satisfactory match between the model predictions and the actual observations.