Life Sciences and Agriculture

Journal of Water and Land Development

Content

Journal of Water and Land Development | 2020 | No 46 |

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Abstract

The head loss is a decrease in compressive height caused by friction and direction changes of flow at the sliced bend. This method expected to provide is easy, fast, and economical. The elements of influence are the velocity of flow, the num-ber of slices, average length of sliced walls, angle changes of the sliced, coefficient of friction, acceleration of gravity, and slope of the pipe. Equation for coefficient of head loss (Kb) is an analysis method for the head loss (hL) calculation. The analysis results that have obtained are the larger diameter of the pipe, and the more slices with a fixed discharge, the coefficient of hL becomes small. Conversely, if the diameter of the pipe is getting smaller, and the slice is getting less, then the coefficient of hL becomes bigger. This method, expected to give new knowledge in pipeline network applications, especially for the large diameter of pipelines.

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Authors and Affiliations

Moh Abduh
Suhardjono Suhardjono
Sumiadi Sumiadi
Very Dermawan
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Abstract

The Shatt Al Arab River (SAAR) is a major source of raw water for most water treatment plants (WTP’s) located along with it in Basrah province. This study aims to determine the effects of different variables on water quality of the SAAR, using multivariate statistical analysis. Seventeen variables were measured in nine WTP’s during 2017, these sites are Al Hussain (1), Awaissan (2), Al Abass (3), Al Garma (4), Mhaigran (5), Al Asmaee (6), Al Jubaila (7), Al Baradia (8), Al Lebani (9). The dataset is treated using principal component analysis (PCA) / factor analysis (FA), cluster analysis (CA) to the most important factors affecting water quality, sources of contamination and the suitability of water for drinking and irrigation. Three factors are responsible for the data structure representing 88.86% of the total variance in the dataset. CA shows three different groups of similarity between the sampling stations, in which station 5 (Mhaigran) is more contami-nated than others, while station 3 (Al Abass) and 6 (Al Asmaee) are less contaminated. Electrical conductivity (EC) and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) are plotted on Richard diagram. It is shown that the samples of water of Mhaigran are locat-ed in the class of C4-S3 of very high salinity and sodium, water samples of Al Abass station, are located in the class of C3-S1 of high salinity and low sodium, and others are located in the class of C4-S2 of high salinity and medium sodium. Generally, the results of most water quality parameters reveal that SAAR is not within the permissible levels of drinking and irrigation.

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Zainb A.A. Al Saad
Ahmed N.A. Hamdan
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Abstract

Flood with intense rainfall and inadequate drainage system leads to flood inundation in residential areas, which in turn damages the housing components and causes a loss. The different level of flood inundation at various affected locations caused varying degrees of losses. This study aimed to identify the damage conditions and analysed the physical loss of the residential building components. The physical vulnerability level is influenced by two damage qualification: the structural and architectural damages. The third-order polynomial function approach produces the best model for both qualifications, yielding the smallest average of errors (RMSE) of 0.0187 for the structural quality and 0.0672 for the architectural quality. The amount of losses related to the architectural elements of the house is smaller compared to the structural one as it is not its main component. This approach is useful as a guide in determining the post-flood handling rehabilitation cost of both structural and architectural elements that will be more appropriate for future conditions. This information is essential as effective management to design flood disaster mitigation strategies and may serve as a basis for flood risk management.

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Authors and Affiliations

Azmeri Azmeri
Halida Yunita
Safrida Safrida
Indra Satria
Faris Z. Jemi
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Abstract

The study deals with the assessment of the solid transport in the wadi Mouillah watershed (Tafna, Algeria). Sediment transport is a complex phenomenon. The quantity of sediment transported is very important, and it fills in the reservoirs. The scale is out of proportion in semiarid areas. Algeria is one of the most affected countries by this phenomenon. A simple method, based on average discharges, easy to implement, has been developed for estimating the sediment yield using dou-ble correlation method (a first one between liquid discharge – solid concentration and a second one between solid flow – concentration). It is based on hydrometric data (liquid flow, concentrations and sediment discharges) with applications analysis on seasonal and annual scales for data’s of Sidi Belkheir station at the outlet of the wadi Mouillah watershed (North-West of Algeria). The obtained results by the application of this method are very encouraging because of the quite significant correlation coefficients found (≥59% for the first correlation and ≥88% for the second correlation). The water-shed of Mouillah produces between 43 730 and 56 410 Mg·y–1 as suspended sediment load against 48.56∙103 to 53.3∙103 m3·y–1 of liquid intake.

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Fadila Belarbi
Hamid Boulchelkia
Boualem Remini
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Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the influence of the load on the water accumulation embankment crown on changes in the course of the filtration curve in its body. The study was carried out with a medium-size filtration apparatus. We made a model of hydrotechnical embankment with the following dimensions. Width: base 2.0 m, crown 0.5 m. Slope inclination: waterside 1:1.5, landside 1:1. Embankment height 0.6 m, width 1.0 m, weight 900 kg. The construction mater-ial included a homogeneous mineral subsoil classified as silty medium sand (siMSa). The embankment model made in a medium-size apparatus kept the accumulation level at a height of 0.5 m. With data from the recording systems, we deter-mined the course of the filtration curve. Next, we kept on loading and relieving the embankment crown using an actuator and a VSS plate with a diameter of 300 mm. During this process, we recorded changes in the level of the water table inside the embankment. A decrease in the water table was observed as a result of increased load. Once the load on the embankment crown was reduced, the water level inside the embankment increased. The embankment model built from natural soil works well as a structure that keeps damming water in a continuous manner. The use of drainage in the form of a stone prism at the foot of the landside slope allows protecting the slope against the negative influence of filtration (piping, lique-faction).

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Mariusz Cholewa
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Abstract

The objective of the research is to find low cost alternative for conventional recreational lagoons that consume water and energy used for desalination which is the only alternative for water treatment in most touristic villages all over the world. The study uses low cost recreational lagoon with new technology that use brackish water from deep wells and purify this water before entering the lagoon by controlled pulses and energy-efficient ultrasound filtration. This allows to maintain the water within pre-defined parameters, guaranteeing standardized water quality in all lagoons. The research introduces the lagoon new technology and its low cost design including feeding and drainage wells, second, the hydrographic survey-ing for the coastline in the study area, third water quality modelling for the production and injection wells, fourth, use SOBEK 1-2 Mathematical Model for determine the water depth and perspective water volume for the designed lagoon. The aim of this model: Determine the relation between the water depth and the water volume for the canal and the lakes. Sec-ond, calculate the evaporation rate from the surface, Determine the number and capacity of the water wells needed to fill the canal and the lakes, and Find out the relationship between the discharge and the time needed to circulate the water in the canal and the lakes to keep their water quality.

The results of the measurements from the observation well prove that the optimal discharge per each well is 0.022 m3·s–1. The construction of suggested new green technology lagoon are very low cost, completely environmentally friendly, in addition fulfils the highest standards of environmental safety.

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Rasha I. M. El Gohary
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Abstract

Existing plans for the development of the continental coast and the islands of the Peter the Great Bay suggest establish-ing of large economic clusters. The most important condition for achieving sustainable development of the emerging natu-ral-economic system is to implement spatial planning of coastal zones. The work is based on the information about the nat-ural complexes of the territory and water area, obtained through landscape approach. The territory of the Shkota Island and its submarine slopes were used as a key area for the study of the features of the spatial organization of landscapes of coastal geostructures. We used a complex of physiographic, geoecological, cartographic and statistical research methods. For ter-restrial landscapes, 49 observation points are described and 4 profiles are laid; for underwater landscapes 64 observation points are described and 18 profiles are laid. As a result, a unified structural-genetic classification of land and underwater landscapes is established, the landscapes are mapped, and zones of interaction between aerial and aquatic natural complex-es are identified. The results obtained are the basis for identifying priority types of coastal-marine environmental manage-ment, functional zoning and spatial planning.

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Kirill Ganzei
Vasilii Zharikov
Nina Pshenichnikova
Andrei Lebedev
Ilia Lebedev
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Abstract

The remarkable development of sanitation in Morocco has inevitably led to the production of sludge generated from wastewater treatment plants in increasing quantities. Consequently, the problem of sludge management becomes persistent and worrying.

The aim of this paper was to contribute to the study of sewage sludge management issue in Morocco by identifying the various constraints hampering the sustainable disposal and/or recovery of municipal sewage sludge and drawing up rec-ommendations for the decision-makers. Moreover, in the context of improving by learning from best practices and seeking common solutions regarding this problematic, benchmarking with other countries has been conducted as well.

To carry out this study, a methodological approach was defined based on bibliographic research, surveys, interviews and benchmarking.

The constraints hampering the sustainable management of sludge are numerous and complex, they have not been tech-nical and environmental but also a regulatory, institutional-organizational and economic-financial nature yet. Therefore, municipalities, government and academia ideally would be encouraged to participate in the decision-making process re-garding the management of sewage sludge. Technical solutions, when coupled with stakeholder participation, can lead to policy implementation with a higher chance of improving the present situation.

In the case of Morocco, when comparing with others sludge recovery and disposal routes, land application (reuse in ag-riculture, silviculture and rehabilitation of degraded soils) remains the most environmentally friendly option, as well as a sustainable and economically viable solution.

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Abdessamad Ghacha
Lailal Ben Alla
Mohammed Ammari
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Abstract

Following flood events and cloudbursts alternating with long drought periods, interest grew in the reservoirs, lakes and water basins in the Tuscany region. In-depth studies are needed to understand the role of water bodies in territorial resili-ence to climate change. Water volume is the main information to be collected to quantify and monitor their capacity. In this study, a methodology was developed for the estimation of water volume, based on depth measurements taken by sensors with low detection time and costs that can quantify the resource on a regional scale. The depth measuring instrument was a portable sounder with 95 satellite positioning system (Deeper Smart Sonar PRO + (WI-FI + GPS). 204 water bodies were measured. The results indicate that depth is a fundamental parameter to be detected in the field, to obtain the volume with automatic and precise tools. The calculated volume correlates well with the real volume with an R2 = 0.94. Elaboration of the results led to a model being developed to estimate the volume, knowing only the lake surface area. The database created can be used to conduct future studies on the dynamics of water resources in relation to climate change. It will also be possi-ble to make comparisons with data obtained from satellite and LiDAR (light detection and ranging) surveys.

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Yamuna Giambastiani
Riccardo Giusti
Stefano Cecchi
Francesca Palomba
Francesco Manetti
Stefano Romanelli
Lorenzo Bottai
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Abstract

Monitoring of surface waters within the transboundary section of the Western Bug River showed, that during 2014–2018, a significant excess of the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) was observed for some substances for fish ponds. As a result of this, the water in the river for these substances was rated as “dirty” in terms of purity and correspond-ed to water quality class IV, namely: phosphorus was observed to exceed the MPC at the observation point Ambukіv vil-lage in 2015 (9.7 times), for manganese – an excess of the MPC at the observation point Ambukіv village in 2018 (9.7 times) and in point Zabuzhzhia village in 2014 (7.9 times), 2015 (8.0 times), 2017 (7.1 times), 2018 (8.3 times); for the total iron – the exceeding of MPC at the observation point Ambukіv village in 2016 (5.95 times) and 2017 (6.13 times); at the observation point Ustilug town in 2016 (5.23 times); in the observation point Zabuzhzhia village in 2016 (9.44 times) and 2017 (5.27 times). The assessment of the surface waters based on the determination of the pollution factor showed that during the study period their quality did not deteriorate but did not meet the norms. In general, surface waters of the river correspond to the second class of quality and are characterized as “poorly polluted” waters by the level of pollution.

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Authors and Affiliations

Igor Gopchak
Andrii Kalko
Tetiana Basiuk
Oleg Pinchuk
Ievgenii Gerasimov
Oksana Yaromenko
Viktor Shkirynets
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Abstract

The purpose of the paper is to analyze the spatial variability of precipitation in Poland in the years 1981–2010. The av-erage annual rainfall was 607 mm. Precipitation in Poland is characterized by high spatial and temporal variability. The lowest annual precipitation was recorded in the central part of the country, where they equaled 500 mm. The highest annual precipitation totals were determined in the south, equaling 970 mm. The average precipitation in the summer half-year is 382 mm (63% of the annual total). On the basis of data from 53 climate stations, maps were made of the spatial distribution of precipitation for the period of the year and winter and summer half-year. The kriging method was used to map rainfall distribution in Poland. In the case study, cross-validation was used to compare the prediction performances of three periods. Kriging, with exponential type of semivariogram, gave the best performance in the statistical sense. Their application is justices especially in areas where landform is very complex. In accordance with the assumptions, the mean prediction error (ME), mean standardized prediction error (MSE), and root mean-square standardized prediction error (RMSSE) values are approximately zero, and root-mean-square prediction error (RMSE) and average standard error (ASE) reach values well below 100.

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Antoni Grzywna
Andrzej Bochniak
Agnieszka Ziernicka-Wojtaszek
Joanna Krużel
Krzysztof Jóźwiakowski
Andrzej Wałęga
Agnieszka Cupak
Agnieszka Mazur
Radomir Obroślak
Artur Serafin
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Abstract

Flood inundation processes in urban areas are primarily affected by artificial factors such as drainage facilities, local al-terations of topography and land uses. The objective of this study is to examine the capability of hydrological model SI-MODAS to estimate runoff and investigating the utilization of storage well in controlling runoff in a residential area. The result of the estimated runoff from the hydrological model was compared with the existing capacity of the drainage channel to identify which channel experienced the problem of inundation. The location of inundation was used to determine the location and number of storage well. The results showed that SIMODAS model could be applied in runoff analyses with 8.09% of relative error compared with runoff depth from field measurement. The existing capacity of the channel could not accommodate runoff Q10yr where the inundation discharge was approximately 0.24 m3·s–1 (at outlet point 1) and 0.12 m3·s–1 (at outlet point 2). The inundation problem was overcome by using a combination system between channel normalization (reduce 35% of total inundation discharge) and storage well system (reduce 65% of total inundation discharge). The storage well was designed at 20 locations (at outlet point 1) and 16 locations (at outlet point 2) which each well had a discharge of 0.0058 m3·s–1. The storage well combined with channel normalization could be used as an alternative way to solve inunda-tion problems in a residential area considering the constraint of land space limitation in the urban area.

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Donny Harisuseno
Mohammad Bisri
Tunggul S. Haji
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Abstract

Climate, land use, and land cover change can propagate alteration to the watershed environment. The interaction be-tween natural and human activities probably accelerates the change, a phenomenon that will generate serious environmental problems. This study aims to evaluate the change in the hydrological regime due to natural and human-induced processes. The study was conducted in Brantas watershed, Indonesia, which is the largest watershed in East Java. This area is populat-ed by more than 8 million inhabitants and is the most urbanized area in the region. An analysis of rainfall time series use to shows the change in natural phenomena. Two land-use maps at different time intervals were used to compare the rapid de-velopment of urbanization, and the discharge from two outlets of the sub-watersheds was employed to assess hydrological changes. The indicator of hydrological alteration (IHA) method was used to perform the analysis. The daily discharge data are from 1996 to 2017. The research results show an increase in flow (monthly, 1-day, 3-day, 7-day, 30-day, and 90-day flows) in the two sub-watersheds (Ploso and Kertosono) from the pre-period (1996–2006) to the post-period (2007–2017).

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Indarto Indarto
Hendra Andiananta Pradana
Sri Wahyuningsih
Muhammad K. Umam
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Abstract

In order to evaluate the water quality of the Hauterivian groundwater in the zinc deposit of Chaabet el Hamra, Southern Setif region, Algeria, eighteen physico-chemical parameters such as pH, EC, TDS, Cl−, SO42−, HCO3−, CO32−, NO3−, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, and heavy metals Zn, Pb, Fe, Cr, Cd, Mn were analyzed and collected from six different wells in April 2012. The studied groundwater is dominated by HCO3−, Ca2+, and Mg2+ ions. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) and Algerian standards, all groundwater samples are considered safe and fit for drinking as they fall within the permissible limits. In addition, the Schoeller diagram confirms the best quality water of the Hauterivian groundwater. Gibbs diagram show that the predominant samples fall in the rock-water interaction field, suggesting that water-rock inter-actions are the major mechanism controlling groundwater chemistry. Assessment of groundwater samples using various water quality indices such as sodium absorption ratio (SAR), soluble sodium percentage (SSP), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), magnesium hazard (MH) and Kelly ratio (KR) showed that the groundwater in the area has an excellent quality for irrigation purpose. According to Wilcox’s diagram, all groundwater samples fall in the C2S1 category, reflecting that they are suitable for irrigation.

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Houria Kada
Abdslem Demdoum
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Abstract

The purpose of the research is to establish the total number of ponds in Ukraine and to analyse the territorial distribu-tion in the administrative areas, as well as in the river basin districts, as the main hydrographic units of water management. Cadastral data of the State Agency of Water Resources of Ukraine regional offices as of 2019 was used in the research (as to Crimea, Donetsk and Luhansk regions we applied the data as of 2014). According the researches there are 50,793 ponds in Ukraine with a total water table area of 2,92899 ha and the volume of 3,969.4 mln m3 of water in 2019. The quantitative distribution of ponds across Ukraine is unequal. Most of them are concentrated in the central part of the country (10.5% of the total number of ponds in the country are in Vinnytsia region). Least of them are in Luhansk region (0.7%). Almost half of the ponds are located in the Dnieper River Basin (48.5%). The lowest quantity of ponds is in the Black Sea Basin (1.2%). The regulation of river basins districts (the rivers of the Sea of Azov, Crimea and Black Sea Basins) reaches 0.71–0.77. As of 2019, 28% of the ponds are rented out. In order to identify the real status of the ponds (both quantitative and qualitative), their recreational role, the environmental impact and the regulation of the hydrographic network in Ukraine, it is necessary to increase the attention to ponds monitoring.

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Authors and Affiliations

Valentyn Khilchevskyi
Vasyl Grebin
Myroslava Zabokrytska
Viktoria Zhovnir
Hanna Bolbot
Liudmyla Plichko
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Abstract

The aim of the work was to determine the technological reliability of the selected pollution indicators removal BOD5, CODCr and total suspension from the sewage treatment plant working with the bioreactor Pomiltek Mann type. Wastewater treatment plant which is a subject of this study is located in Lesser Poland, in Siepraw commune. The analysis was per-formed using the Weibull method for basic indicators of impurities, BOD5, CODCr and total suspended solids. Physico-chemical analyses of raw and treated wastewater, were carried out in the period from 2003 to 2014 (11 years). The research period included measured values of pollutions indicators in 38 samples of raw and treated sewage. For each of pollution indicators descriptive statistic, percentage reduction (��) and treatment plant reliability factors (RF) were calculated. Aver-age reduction for BOD5 and TSS was on level equal 94%, only for COD the average reduction was lower and was on level 89%. The reliability values determined by Weibull method, were: 75% (BOD5), 90% (CODCr) and 89.5% (TSS). The relia-bility results have been lower than the presented by literature source, which means that work of wastewater treatment plant in Siepraw was not satisfied in 11 years of research.

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Karolina Kurek
Piotr Bugajski
Agnieszka Operacz
Dariusz Młyński
Andrzej Wałęga
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Abstract

This work aims to evaluate the treated wastewater from the activated sludge treatment plant in the City of Sidi Bel Ab-bes (North-Western Algeria) which is required for reuse in irrigation. The control of irrigated areas downstream is done based on a pedological study. Physico-chemical analysis such as (pH, BOD5, COD and SS) indicate results in Algerian and international standards required by the WHO. The Sodium Adsorption Ratio and Electrical Conductivity values of the treated wastewater belong to the C3-S1 class. The treated wastewater has a fairly good microbiological quality that meets Algerian standards. The helminth eggs are practically absent. The concentrations of heavy metals are much lower than the limits prescribed in the Algerian decrees. Therefore, the overall processing plant efficiency is satisfactory and has the char-acteristics of a good treated water quality for reuse in the field of irrigation while protecting the environment. The pedolo-gical study of the soil samples shows that the most dominant fraction is undeveloped calcimagnetic. The planned irrigation plain covers an area of about two thousand hectares. Depending on the crops to irrigate; the development and nature of the necessary or recommended improvements, the proposed irrigation perimeter could be classified into five categories in which only three categories are irrigable. Water projects have been proposed to ensure the irrigation of three subdivided sectors.

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Zakari Mahfoud
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Abstract

Recently, Google Earth Engine (GEE) provides a new way to effectively classify land cover utilizing available in-built classifiers. However, there have a few studies on the applications of the GEE so far. Therefore, the goal of this study is to explore the capacity of the GEE platform in terms of land cover classification in Dien Bien Province of Vietnam. Land cover classification in the year of 2003 and 2010 were performed using multiple-temporal Landsat images. Two algorithms – GMO Max Entropy and Classification and Regression Tree (CART) integrated into the Google Earth Engine (GEE) plat-form – were applied for this classification. The results indicated that the CART algorithm performed better in terms of mapping land use. The overall accuracy of this algorithm in the year of 2003 and 2010 were 80.0% and 81.6%, respective-ly. Significant changes between 2003 and 2010 were found as an increase in barren land and a reduction in forest land. This is likely due to the slash-and-burn agricultural practice of ethnic minorities in the province. Barren land seems to occur more at locations near water sources, reflecting the local people’s unsuitable farming practice. This study may provide use-ful information in land cover change in Dien Bien Province, as well as analysis mechanisms of this change, supporting en-vironmental and natural resource management for the local authorities.

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Luong B. Nguyen
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Abstract

The use of phytoplankton as an indicator of water pollution is a promising tool for assessment of water quality. The purpose of this study was to determine whether diversity indices, including the species richness and diversity of phyto-plankton, could be used for reliable assessment of water quality in the Wadaslintang Reservoir in Indonesia. Surveys were conducted monthly at eight sites, from July 2019 to October 2019. Phytoplankton was collected during the day at 10:00 until approximately 15:00 in the euphotic zone. The parameters investigated were species richness and the abundance of phytoplankton, as well as water quality parameters listed in Government Regulation Number 82 of 2001. The level of pol-lution was represented biologically by the Shannon–Wiener diversity index and physicochemically by the STORET (stor-age and retrieval of water quality data) index. Moreover, the two indices were compared to determine whether a particular diversity index was more effective for assessment of this reservoir. The results showed that during the dry season, 22 taxa of phytoplankton were present, belonging to Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, Chrysophyta, and Euglenophyta. During the wet season, 29 taxa were found, belonging to Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, and Chrysophyta. Based on the Shannon-Wiener index and STORET index, water quality was better during the wet season than during the dry season. The results of water quality assessment using both indices were consistent, but the diversity index was a more sensitive indicator of pollution levels. Therefore, the Shannon–Wiener index is a useful tool for assessment of water quality in the Wadaslintang Reservoir.

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Authors and Affiliations

Agatha S. Piranti
Dwi N. Wibowo
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Abstract

Perceiving the spatiotemporal relationship of land use changes and groundwater resources is crucial for the effective and sustainable management of the plains. This study aims to investigate the relationship between land use changes and groundwater depth fluctuations in the forbidden plains of northern Hamedan. In the present study, the land use maps for 1989, 1997, 2005, 2013 and 2018 were extracted and categorized from Landsat satellite images and then evaluated for accuracy. In addition, groundwater depth distribution maps were prepared by kriging method for five years from piezometric data. The correlation and relationship between land use changes and groundwater depth fluctuations were determined by REGRESS methods. The findings from kriging method indicated that the intensity of groundwater decline during the last three periods of study (2005, 2013 and 2018) becomes more severe in the study area. Land use change trends indicate a sharp decline in the orchards, pasture lands, barren lands and a relative decline in the irrigated agricultural land, and consequently, increasing in non-irrigation and residential farmland. In addition, the average annual depth of groundwater level during the past 29 years decreased to 1.57 m and 0.87 m in the Kabudrahang and Razan Plains, respectively. The r value of REGRESS method during five study periods was the minimum 0.015 and maximum 0.15 in the Kabudrahang Plain and minimum 0.06 and maximum 0.15 in the Razan Plain, respectively. The results of the study indicated that climate changes cannot be considered as the reason for declining the groundwater in the study area. However, along with the relative impacts of land use changes, the role of managerial factors, the prominent example of which is the non-expert location of the Shahid Mofatteh Hydroelectric Power Station, which supplies underground water to cool the generators, should be considered. The present study can be effective in the management, planning, and policy of groundwater resources, land use location, and spatial planning in the areas facing severe water shortages, especially in the northern plains of Hamedan because this study indicates the importance of underground water in arid and semi-arid regions.

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Hossein Rafiemehr
Lotfali Kozegar Kaleji
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Abstract

Faced with the challenges of sustainable groundwater resource management in the arid zone, the identification of re-serves and their monitoring have become vital. This paper aims to identify the Turonian aquifer in the Cretaceous Béchar basin, and calculate its transmissivity, permeability and storage coefficient, as well as its evolution over time. This Tu-ronian aquifer is characterized by marine limestones (gentle dip shelters 45° to the North and 5° to 10° to the South). Pumping tests revealed a transmissivity T of 10–4 to 10–2 m2·s–1, a permeability K of 10–6 to 10–4 m·s–1 and a storage coeffi-cient S of approximately 10–3. Two piezometric campaigns, carried out between (1976–2018), show a converging and con-stant flow direction from the North–East to the South–West and from the North–West to the South–East towards the outlet of the basin. Decreased values were observed in the North and South–West borders due to isopiezometric lines. However, this water table is not in a stationary state, it shows seasonal and interannual fluctuations in relation to the variable rainfall and the exploitation rate. In terms of facies, the projection of the two hydrochemical campaigns, during 1976 and 2018 on the Piper diagram, did not show any significant evolution, they are concentrated in the chlorinated and sulphated calcium and magnesium facies.

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Authors and Affiliations

Sonia Sadat
Hamidi Mansour
Abderrahmane Mekkaoui
Touhami Merzougui
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Abstract

Flood risk management are considerably influenced by several factors, such as all sources of flooding, social circum-stances, policy and even the potential for local economic growth. To encourage government, business, community and oth-er parties to continue investing in flood risk management projects, it is necessary to give understanding that the projects can also provide economic benefits through systematic predictions and assessments of costs, benefits and social values, espe-cially on flood-affected communities. This study aims: (1) to develop knowledge and understanding on small-scale flood risk management project in Malang City, Indonesia, and; (2) to assess the economic efficiency of the project investment considering all benefits, both monetary and non-monetary. The research method is a mixed method combining quantitative questionnaires (N = 53 from 162 families) with qualitative in-depth interviews (N = 10) and field observations. The runoff discharge and the inundation depth were calculated using hydrology and hydraulic analysis, while the economic efficiency was analysed using cost benefit analysis (CBA). The results show that the community-based flood risk management system can reduce the flood risk up to 30% compared to before the implementation of that system. This system also provides direct financial benefits through the use of drainage channels for fish and vegetables farming. It causes the increase of the net so-cial benefit about 70–90% and the net present value (NPV) greater than zero (NPV > 0). Therefore, the project investment is recommended to be proceeded.

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Authors and Affiliations

Laksni Sedyowati
Grahita Chandrarin
Ginanjar I.K. Nugraha
Bambang Nugroho
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Abstract

There is a cascade of hydroelectric power plants built on the Váh River. From a water-management point of view, the natural channel is used to drain extreme discharges. During most of the year, discharges are regulated by water-management structures. These discharges are not used for energy-related purposes; therefore, it is important to determine the optimal discharge that will not negatively affect the ecosystem of the stream. The minimum balance discharge (hydro-ecological discharge) was determined based on the instream flow incremental methodology (IFIM) using the riverine habi-tat simulation system (RHABSIM). Input data were obtained from direct measurements on three reference reaches in the area between the cities Piešťany and Nové Mesto nad Váhom. Hydraulic flow characteristics were derived from three measurements at different water levels. Habitat quality was represented by ichthyofauna. Data to determine the habitat suit-ability curves of fish were obtained using a diving technique to collect video footage. The modelling resulted in the quanti-fication of the effect of discharge on ichthyofauna as a bio-indicator of habitat quality, which implied the need of 20 m3∙s–1 for a minimum balance discharge in summer.

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Authors and Affiliations

Zuzana Štefunková
Viliam Macura
Gréta Doláková
Martina Majorošová
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Abstract

In the present work, the dried biomass of soil isolated fungus Eurotium cristatum was used for synthesizing silver na-noparticles (AgNPs). The synthesized AgNPs were spherical in shape with average diameter of 16.56 nm and displayed maximum absorbance at 418. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) study indicated the presence and binding of proteins with myco-produced silver nanoparticles. The optimum conditions for AgNPs biosynthesis were found to be at temperature of 40°C, pH of 8.0, substrate concentration of 500 ppm and fungal biomass wt. of 0.8 g. The AgNPs showed antibacterial ac-tivity against Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri. AgNPs was built-in thin film nanocomposite (TFNC) membrane and the impacts of nanomaterial composition on membrane properties and de-salination process were studied. The AgNPs produced membrane TFNC had better filtration performances than pure thin film composite membrane TFC. The TFNC membrane had enhanced water flux (32.0 vs. 16.5 dm3∙m–2∙h–1) and advanced NaCl rejection (91.7 vs. 89%) compared to the TFC membrane. A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of the irrigation with desalinated water on yield and productivity of essential oil of the sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and lavender (Lavandula multifida L.). The irrigation with desalinated water reduced significantly the soil reaction, soil electri-cal conductivity (EC), sodium adsorption ratio and exchangeable sodium percent in rhizospheric soil, it also enhanced the growth and oil yield of both plants compared with those irrigated with salt water.

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Authors and Affiliations

Rabaa Yaseen
Yousra Kotp
Doaa Eissa
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Abstract

The major impacts on aquatic ecosystems worldwide caused by land use lead to changes in their natural conditions and limitation of water use for various needs. This paper presents the results of the study of the physical and chemical parame-ters and macroinvertebrate assemblage in the White Drin River (or: the Drim River, Alb. the Drini i Bardhë River) basin, the largest in Kosovo. Macroinvertebrate sampled at 11 sites in the river resulted in 5946 collected benthic organisms, which in taxonomic terms belong to 12 orders and 51 families. Of the total number of organisms, 72.28% were Insects, 25.39% Amphipoda crustaceans and 2.33% were Annelide worms and Mollusk. The used biotic indices Biological Moni-toring Working Party (BMWP), Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT), average score per taxon (ASPT) and Stroud Water Research Center (SWRC) classify water quality in excellent category in the sampling site S1 near the source of the White Drin River, whereas in other sampling sites, as a result of pollution, water quality varies on category II–IV. The Pearson's correlation analyses shown that the physical and chemical parameters affect the water quality and the com-position of macroinvertebrates. Our results show that the parameters that adversely affect the BMWP, EPT and ASPT bio-tic indices as well as the Shannon–Wiener, Mergalef and Menhinik diversity indices are: pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total suspended solids (TSS), nitrates (NO3–) and chlorides (Cl–). We can conclude that the anthropogenic impact on White Drin basin affects the physical, chemical and biological parameters of the water therefore these parameters should be con-stantly included in Biomonitoring and Management plans for water resources in Kosovo.

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Authors and Affiliations

Ferdije Zhushi Etemi
Hazir Çadraku
Arbnore Bytyçi
Tetlinda Kuçi
Arbnore Desku
Prespa Ymeri
Pajtim Bytyçi

Editorial office

EDITORIAL BOARD JOURNAL OF WATER AND LAND DEVELOPMENT
Editor-in-Chief
Professor Dr. Hab. Mohamed Hazem Kalaji
Managing Editor
Dr Adam Brysiewicz
English Language Editor
Charlotte Aldred (English Native Speaker)
Associate Editors
Szczepan L. DĄBKOWSKI (environmental engineering, hydrology, hydraulics) - Institute of Technology and Life Sciences, Falenty, Poland
Magdalena BORYS (hydraulic engineering, environmental geotechnics) - Institute of Technology and Life Sciences, Falenty, Poland
Piotr BUGAJSKI (water and wastewater management) – Agriculture Univeristy in Kraków, Poland
Tomasz GNATOWSKI (soil water management) - Warsaw University of Life Sciences (SGGW), Poland
Krzysztof JÓŹWIAKOWSKI (water and wastewater management) - University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Poland
Lech KUFEL (language editor) - Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities (UPH) , Poland
Josephine MAES-SMOLARSKI (language editor) - Golf Etc., Zielona, Poland
Mariusz SOJKA - Poznań University of Life Science, Poland
Lech Wojciech SZAJDAK (environmental chemistry, chemistry and biochemistry of soils) - Institute for Agricultural and Forest Environment (IAFE) of Polish Academy of Sciences
Tomasz SZYMCZAK (statistics editor) - Institute of Technology and Life Sciences, Falenty, Poland
Szymon SZEWRAŃSKI (landscape architecture, spatial economy) - Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Poland
Romuald ŻMUDA (irrigation and drainage, land reclamation) - Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Poland
Andrzej ŻYROMSKI (agrometeorology, hydrometeorology) - Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Poland
Editorial Board
Jan ADAMOWSKI – McGill University, Quebec, Canada
Okke BATELAAN – Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia
Narayan R. BIRASAL – KLE Society’s G H College, Haveri, India
Nicholas CLARKE – Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute, Ås, Norway
Dušan HUSKA – Agricultural University, Nitra, Slovak
Arvo IITAL – Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia
Edmund KACA – Warsaw University of Life Sciences – SGGW, Poland
Stanisław KOSTRZEWA – Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Poland
Pyotr I. KOVALENKO – Ukrainian Academy of Agricultural Engineering and Land Reclamation, Kiev, Ukraine
Irena KRISCIUKAITIENE – Lithuanian Institute of Agrarian Economics, Vilnius, Lithuania
Anatolyi P. LICHACEWICZ – Institute of Melioration, Minsk, Belarus
Ferenc LIGETVARI – Agriculture University, Debrecen, Hungary
Hanna OBARSKA-PEMPKOWIAK – University of Technology, Gdańsk, Poland
Ola PALM – Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Uppsala, Sweden
Edward PIERZGALSKI – Warsaw University of Life Sciences – SGGW, Poland
Czesław PRZYBYŁA – Poznań University of Life Sciences, Poland
Joachim QUAST – Zentrum für Hydrologie ZALF, Müncheberg, Germany
Erik P. QUERNER – Alterra, Wageningen, The Netherlands
Antanas S. SILEIKA – Water Research Institute of the ASU, Kedainiai, Lithuania
Martin J. WASSEN – University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
Ingrid WESSTRÖM – Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden
Muhammad AQEEL ASHRAF – University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

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Editorial Department
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Falenty, al. Hrabska 3
05-090 Raszyn
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e-mail: journal@itp.edu.pl
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Instructions for authors

Authors should submit manuscripts via the Editorial Board (Editorial system - Submit Your Manuscript )

1. "Journal of Water and Land Development” is published four times a year in English, articles are followed by a short (not exceeding 200 words) summary in Polish.
2. Conciseness of style is a prequisite, avoid verbose phrases and abvious statements. Manuscript should not exceed 1 printing sheet (20 standard pages of 1800 characters per page). Tables, figures and short summary should be typed at the end of the paper on separate pages.
3. Each article should contain the following elements: title, name and surname of the author(s), authors' affiliation, short abstract no longer than 150–200 words, key words, text of the paper divided into Introduction, Material and Methods, Results and Discussion, References (arranged in alphabetic order as shown below) and summary in Polish BENCALA K.E., WALTERS R.A. 1983. Simulation of solute transport in mountain pool-and riffle stream: a transient storage model. Water Resources Research. Vol. 19 p. 718–724. GÓRECKI A. 1987. Rozpoznanie i opis sztucznych pól odniesień przestrzennych [Recognition and description of the artificial plots of spatial relations]. Manuscript. Wrocław. Uniwersytet Wrocławski pp. 18. JANKOWSKI M. 2006. Elementy grafiki komputerowej [Elements of the computer graphics]. Warszawa. WNT. ISBN 8320431638 pp. 220. STRZELECKI T. 1994. Rola systemów informacji geograficznej w zarządzaniu państwem, województwem i gminą. W: Komputerowe wspomaganie badań naukowych [The role of GIS in the management of the state, voivodship and community. In: Computer aided research]. I Konferencja Środowiskowa. Wrocław. Wrocławskie Towarzystwo Naukowe p. 19–25. Papers referred to should be quoted in the text as KOWALSKI [1997], [KOWALSKI, NOWAK 1997]. If there are more than two authors, please add et al. after the first name i.e. NOWAK et al. [1997]. English version of the non-congress language title should be added in brackets.
4. Figures should be draw on tracing paper or delivered as laser printouts. Legends in the graphs should be restricted to numerical and letter descriptions, other explanations should be placed in the figure caption. Descriptions remaining within the graph should be in English and of the proportional size (i.e. they must ensure readability after graph size reduction).
5. Tables should fit to the width (16 cm) and height (24 cm) of the column.
6. Data illustrated in Figures should not appear in Tables and vice versa.
7. All variables in equations and in the text should be written in italic. Use SI units in the form g·cm–3 and not g/ml.
8. Manuscript should be sent in three copies with tables, graphs and English abstract and Polish summary with title and key words on separate pages. Enclose a floppy disc with the text written in Word for Windows with tables and figures saved in separate files.

Journal has Article Processing Charges (APCs) of 200USD (175EUR) and has no submission charges.

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Open Access policy

Journal of Water and Land Development jest czasopismem wydawanym w wolnym dostępie na licencji CC BY-NC-ND 3.0. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/

Journal of Water and Land Development is an open access journal with all content available with no charge in full text version. The journal content is available under the licencse CC BY-NC-ND 3.0 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/.

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