Bentonites and clays are included in the group of drilling fluids materials. The raw materials are mainly clay minerals, which are divided into several groups, like montmorillonite, kaolinite, illite, biotite, muscovite, nontronite, anorthoclase, microcline, sanidine or rutile, differing in chemical composition and crystal lattice structure. Clay minerals have a layered structure forming sheet units. The layers merge into sheets that build up to form the structure of the mineral.
The aim of the studies carried out in the ŁUKASIEWICZ Research Network - Foundry Research Institute is to explore the possibility of using minerals coming from Polish deposits.
The article outlines the basic properties of hybrid bentonites, which are a mixture of bentonite clay called beidellite, originating from overburden deposits of the Turoszów Mine, and foundry bentonite from one of the Slovak deposits. As part of the physico-chemical tests of minerals, measurements included in the PN-85/H-11003 standard, i.e. montmorillonite content, water content and swelling index, were carried out. Additionally, the loss on ignition and pH chemical reaction were determined. Based on the thermal analysis of raw materials, carried out in the temperature range from 0 to 1000oC, changes occurring in these materials during heating, i.e. thermal stability in contact with liquid metal, were determined.
Examinations of the sand mixture based on pure clay and bentonite and of the sand mixture based on hybrid bentonites enabled tracing changes in permeability, compressive strength and tensile strength in the transformation zone as well as compactability referred to the clay content in sand mixture. Selected technological and strength parameters of synthetic sands are crucial for the foundry, because they significantly affect the quality of the finished casting.
Based on the analysis of the results, the optimal composition of hybrid bentonite was selected.