Nauki Techniczne

Archives of Foundry Engineering

Zawartość

Archives of Foundry Engineering | 2021 | vo. 21 | No 3 |

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Abstrakt

Though normal air cooling and green sand mold-casted gray iron convey an essentially pearlitic matrix, ferritic gray iron is used in some electro-mechanical applications to have better magnetic properties, ductility, and low hardness. Conventionally, to produce ferritic gray iron, foundryman initially produces pearlitic gray iron, then it is carried through a long annealing cycle process for ferritic transformation. This experiment is conducted to eliminate the long annealing cycle from the conventional process. A process is developed to produce as-cast ferritic gray cast iron by air cooling in the green sand mold. In this experiment, Si content is kept high, but Mn content is kept low based on sulfur content; a unique thermodynamic process is established for decreasing the Mn content from the melt. After a successful preconditioning and optimum foundry return charging, the melt is specially inoculated, and metal is poured into the green sand mold. An extra feeder is added for slowing down the cooling rate where casting thickness is around 15mm. Finally, hardness and metallographic images are observed for final confirmation of the ferritic matrix.
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Bibliografia

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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Md Sojib Hossain
1

  1. Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Shahbagh, Dhaka – 1000, Bangladesh
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Abstrakt

Protective coatings have direct contacts with hot and liquid alloys. As the result of such contacts gases are emitted from coatings. Gas forming is a tendency of the tested material to emit gases under a temperature influence. In order to assess the gas forming tendency either direct or indirect methods are applied. In the hereby work, the measurements of the gas forming tendency were performed under laboratory conditions, by means of the developed indirect method. The research material constituted samples of six selected protective coatings dissolved either in alcohol or in water. These coatings are applied in sand moulds and cores for making cast iron castings. The assessment of their gas forming tendency was presented in relation to temperatures and heating times. The occurrence and changes of oxygen and hydrogen contents in gases outflowing from the measuring flask during tests, were measured by means of gas sensors. The process of the carbon monoxide (CO) emission during tests was also assessed. The following gas sensors were installed in flow-through micro chambers: for oxygen - lambda probe, for hydrogen – pellistor, for carbon monoxide - sensor (dedicated for CO) FIGARO TGS 822 TF. The results of direct CO measurements were recalculated according to the algorithm supplied by the producer of this sensor.
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Bibliografia

[1] Di Muoio G.L., Skat Tiedje N., Budolph Johansen B. (2014). Automatic vapour sorption analysis as new methodology for assessing moisture content of water based foundry coating and furan sands. Mar del Plata, BS. As., Argentina
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[9] Mocek, J. (2019). Multiparameter assessment of the gas forming tendency of foundry sands with alkyd resins. Archives of Foundry Engineering. 19(2), 41-48.
[10] Zych, J., Mocek, J. & Snopkiewicz, T. (2014). Gas generation properties of materials used in the sand mould technology – modified research method. Archives of Foundry Engineering. 14(3), 105-109.
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[13] Mocek, J. & Chojecki, A. (2009). Evolution of the gas atmosphere during filing the sand moulds with iron alloys. Archives of Foundry Engineering. 9(4), 135-140.
[14] Pietkun-Greber I. Janka R. (2010). Effect of hydrogen on metals and alloys. Proceedings of EC Opole. 4(2), 471-476. (in Polish).
[15] Bobrowski, A., Holtzer, M., Dańko, R. & Żymankowska-Kumon S. (2013). Analysis of gases emitted during a thermal decomposition of the selected phenolic binders. Metalurgia International. 18(si.7), 259-261.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

J. Mocek
1

  1. AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Foundry Engineering, Department of Moulding Materials, Mould Technology and Cast Non-Ferrous Metals, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland
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Abstrakt

Aluminum casting alloys are widely used in especially automotive, aerospace, and other industrial applications due to providing desired mechanical characteristics and their high specific strength properties. Along with the increase of application areas, the importance of recycling in aluminum alloys is also increasing. The amount of energy required for producing primary ingots is about ten times the amount of energy required for the production of recycled ingots. The large energy savings achieved by using the recycled ingots results in a significant reduction in the amount of greenhouse gas released to nature compared to primary ingot production. Production can be made by adding a certain amount of recycled ingot to the primary ingot so that the desired mechanical properties remain within the boundary conditions. In this study, by using the A356 alloy and chips with five different quantities (100% primary ingots, 30% recycled ingots + 70% primary ingots, 50% recycled ingots + 50% primary ingots, 70% recycled ingots + 30% primary ingots, 100% recycled ingots), the effect on mechanical properties has been examined and the maximum amount of chips that can be used in production has been determined. T6 heat treatment was applied to the samples obtained by the gravity casting method and the mechanical properties were compared depending on the amount of chips. Besides, microstructural examinations were carried out with optical microscopy techniques. As a result, it has been observed that while producing from primary ingots, adding 30% recycled ingot to the alloy composition improves the mechanical properties of the alloy such as yield strength and tensile strength to a certain extent. However, generally a downward pattern was observed with increasing recycled ingot amount.
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Bibliografia

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[4] Krolo, J., Gudić, S., Vrsalović, L., Branimir, L., Zvonimir, D. (2020). Fatigue and corrosion behavior of solid-state recycled aluminum alloy EN AW 6082. Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance. 29(7), 4310-4321. DOI: 10.1007/s11665-020-04975-8
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[12] Bjurenstedt, A. (2017). On the influence of imperfections on microstructure and properties of recycled Al-Si casting alloys. Sweden: PhD. Thesis, Jönköping University Jönköping.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

A.Y. Kaya
1
O. Özaydın
1
T. Yağcı
2
A. Korkmaz
2
E. Armakan
1
O. Çulha
2

  1. Cevher Alloy Wheels Co. / R&D Dept., İzmir, Turkey
  2. Manisa Celal Bayar University, Engineering Faculty, Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Manisa, Turkey
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Abstrakt

For the manufacture of near net shape complex titanium products, it is necessary to use investment casting process. Melting of titanium is promising to carry out by electron beam casting technology, which allows for specific processing of the melt, and accordingly control the structure and properties of castings of titanium alloys. However, the casting of titanium in ceramic molds is usually accompanied by a reaction of the melt with the mold. In this regard, the aim of the work was to study the interaction of titanium melt with ceramics of shell molds in the conditions of electron beam casting technology. Ceramic molds were made by using the following refractory materials – fused corundum Al2O3, zircon ZrSiO4 and yttria-stabilized zirconium oxide ZrO2, and ethyl silicate as a binder. Melting and casting of CP titanium was performed in an electron beam foundry. Samples were made from the obtained castings and electron microscopic metallography was performed. The presence and morphology of the altered structure, on the sample surface, were evaluated and the degree and nature of their interaction were determined. It was found that the molds with face layers of zirconium oxide (Z1) and zircon (ZS1) and backup layers of corundum showed the smallest interaction with the titanium melt. Corundum interacts with titanium to form a non-continuous reaction layer with thickness of 400-500 μm. For shell molds with face and backup layers of zircon on the surface of the castings, a reaction layer with thickness of 500-600 μm is formed. In addition, zirconium-silicon eutectic was detected in these layers.
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Bibliografia

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[7] Cen, M. J., Liu, Y., Chen, X., Zhang, H.W. & Li, Y.X. (2019). Inclusions in melting process of titanium and titanium alloys. China Foundry. 16(4), 223-231. DOI: 10.1007/s41230-019- 9046-1.
[8] Smalcerz, A., Blacha, L. & Łabaj, J. (2021). Aluminium loss during Ti-Al-X alloy smelting using the VIM technology. Archives of Foundry Engineering. 21(1), 11-17. DOI: 10.24425/afe.2021.136072.
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[12] Voron, M.M., Drozd, E.A., Matviec, E.A. & Suhenko, V.Ju. (2018). Vlijanie temperatury litejnoj formy na strukturu i svojstva otlivok titanovogo splava VT6 jelektronno-luchevoj viplavki. Metal and Casting of Ukraine. 1-2, 40-44. (in Russian).
[13] Voron, M.M., Levytskyi, M.I. & Lapshuk, T.V. (2015). Structure and properties of lytic alloys of Ti-Al-V electronvariable smelting system. Metaloznavstvo ta obrobka metaliv. 2, 29-37. (in Ukrainian).
[14] Levickij, N.I., Ladohin, S.V., Miroshnichenko, V.I., Matviec, E.A. & Lapshuk T.V. (2008). Ispol'zovanie metallicheskih form dlja poluchenija slitkov i otlivok iz titanovyh splavov pri jelektronno-luchevoj garnisazhnoj plavke. Metal and Casting of Ukraine. 7-8, 50-52. (in Russian).
[15] Nikitchenko, M.N., Semukov, A.S., Saulin, D.V. & Jaburov, A.Ju. (2017). Izuchenie termodinamicheskoj vozmozhnosti vzaimodejstvija materialov lit'evoj formy s metallom pri lit'e titanovyh splavov. Vestnik Permskogo nacional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politehnicheskogo universiteta. Himicheskaja tehnologija i biotehnologija. 4, 249-263. (in Russian).
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[17] Chamorro, X., Herrero-Dorca, N., Rodríguez, P. P., Andrés, U. & Azpilgain, Z. (2017). α-Case formation in Ti-6Al-4V investment casting using ZrSiO4 and Al2O3 moulds. Journal of Materials Processing Technology. 243, 75-81. DOI: 10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2016.12.007.
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[19] Saulin, D., Poylov, V., Uglev, N. (2020). Effusion Mechanism of α-Layer Formation in Vacuum Casting of Titanium Alloys. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 969, 012060, 1-12. DOI: 10.1088/1757- 899X/969/1/012060.
[20] Uwanyuze, S., Kanyo, J., Myrick, S. & Schafföner, S. (2021). A review on alpha case formation and modeling of mass transfer during investment casting of titanium alloys. Journal of Alloys and Compounds. 865, June 2021, 158558, 1-19. DOI: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2020.158558
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

P. Kaliuzhnyi
1
M. Voron
1
O. Mykhnian
1
A. Tymoshenko
1
O. Neima
1
O. Iangol
1

  1. Physico-Technological Institute of Metals and Alloys of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Ukraine
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Abstrakt

The paper presents changes in the production volume of castings made of non-ferrous alloys on the background of changes in total production of casting over the 2000-2019 period, both on a global scale and in Poland. It was found that the dynamics of increase in the production volume of castings made of non-ferrous alloys was distinctly greater than the dynamics of increase in the total production volume of castings over the considered period of time. Insofar as the share of production of the non-ferrous castings in the total production of castings was less than 16% during the first two years of the considered period, it reached the level of 20% in the last four years analysed. This share, when it comes to Poland, increased even to the greater degree; it grew from about 10% of domestic production of castings to over 33% within the regarded 2000-2019 period. The greatest average annual growth rate of production, both on a global scale and in Poland, was recorded for aluminium alloys as compared with other basic non-ferrous alloys. This growth rate for all the world was 4.08%, and for Poland 10.6% over the 2000-2019 period. The value of the average annual growth rate of the production of aluminium castings in Poland was close to the results achieved by China (12%), India (10.3%) and the South Korea (15.4%) over the same period of time. In 2019, the total production of castings in the world was equal to about 109 million tonnes, including over 21 million tonnes of castings made of non-ferrous alloys. The corresponding data with respect to Poland are about 1 million tonnes and about 350 thousand tonnes, respectively. In the same year, the production of castings made of aluminium alloys was equal to about 17.2 million tonnes in the world, and about 340 thousand tonnes in Poland.
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Bibliografia

[1] Wübbenhorst, H. (1984). 5000 Jahre Giessen von Metallen. Ed. VDG Giesserei-Verlag GmbH, Düsseldorf.
[2] Orłowicz, A.W., Mróz, M., Tupaj, M. & Trytek, A. (2015). Materials used in the automotive industry. Archives of Foundry Engineering. 15(2), 75-78.
[3] Cygan, B., Stawarz, M. & Jezierski, J. (2018) Heat treatment of the SiMo iron castings – case study in the automotive foundry. Archives of Foundry Engineering. 18(4), 103-109.
[4] Bolat, C. & Goksenli, A. (2020) Fabrication optimization of Al 7075/Expanded glass syntactic foam by cold chamber die casting. Archives of Foundry Engineering. 20(3), 112- 118.
[5] Orłowicz, A.W., Mróz, M., Wnuk, G., Markowska, O., Homik, W. & Kolbusz, B. (2016). Coefficient of friction of a brake disc-brake pad friction couple. Archives of Foundry Engineering. 16(4), 196-200.
[6] Kmita, A. & Roczniak, A. (2017). Implementation of nanoparticles in materials applied in foundry engineering. Archives of Foundry Engineering. 17(3), 205-209.
[7] Jemielewski, J. (1970). Casting of non-ferrous metals. Warsaw: Ed. WNT. (In Polish)
[8] Perzyk, M., Waszkiewicz, S., Kaczorowski, M., Jopkiewicz, A. (2000). Casting. Warsaw: Ed. WNT. (In Polish)
[9] Kozana, J., Piękoś, M., Maj, M., Garbacz-Klempka, A. & Żak, P.L. (2020). Analysis of the microstructure, properties and machinability of Al-Cu-Si alloys. Archives of Foundry Engineering. 20(4), 145-153.
[10] Matejka, M., Bolibruchová, D. & Kuriš, M. (2021). Crystallization of the structural components of multiple remelted AlSi9Cu3 alloy. Archives of Foundry Engineering. 21(2), 41-45.
[11] Łągiewka, M. & Konopka, Z. (2012). The influence of material of mould and modification on the structure of AlSi11 alloy. Archives of Foundry Engineering. 12(1), 67- 70.
[12] Ščur, J., Brůna, M., Bolibruchová, D. & Pastirčák, R. (2017). Effect of technological parameters on the alsi12 alloy microstructure during crystallization under pressure. Archives of Foundry Engineering. 17(2), 75-78.
[13] Deev, V., Prusov, E., Prikhodko, O., Ri, E., Kutsenko, A. & Smetanyuk, S. (2020). crystallization behavior and properties of hypereutectic Al-Si alloys with different iron content. Archives of Foundry Engineering. 20(4), 101-107.
[14] Piątkowski, J. & Czerepak, M. (2020). The crystallization of the AlSi9 alloy designed for the alfin processing of ring supports in engine pistons. Archives of Foundry Engineering. 20(2), 65-70.
[15] Tupaj, M., Orłowicz, A.W., Trytek, A. & Mróz, M. (2019). Improvement of Al-Si alloy fatigue strength by means of refining and modification. Archives of Foundry Engineering. 19(4), 61-66.
[16] Soiński M.S., Jakubus A. (2020). Changes in the production of ferrous castings in Poland and in the world in the XXI century. Scientific and Technical Conference ‘Technologies of the Future’. Ed. of the Jacob of Paradies University in Gorzów Wielkopolski. Gorzów Wielkopolski, 25.09.2020. Forthcoming.
[17] Soiński M.S., Jakubus A. (2019). Structure of foundry production in Poland against the world trends in XXI century. in: Industry 4.0. Algorithmization of problems and digitalization of processes and devices. Ed. of the Jacob of Paradies University in Gorzów Wielkopolski. 2019. pp. 113-124. ISBN 978-83-65466-55-6.
[18] Soiński M.S, Jakubus A.(2019). Production of castings in Poland and in the world over the years 2000-2017. in: Industry 4.0. Algorithmization of problems and digitalization of processes and devices 2019. Conference 2018. Ed. of the Jacob of Paradies University in Gorzów Wielkopolski. pp. 73-92. ISBN 978-83-65466-90-7.
[19] Soiński, M.S., Skurka, K., Jakubus, A. & Kordas, P. (2015). Structure of foundry production in the world and in Poland over the 1974-2013 Period. Archives of Foundry Engineering. 15(spec.2), 69-76.
[20] Soiński, M.S., Skurka, K., Jakubus, A. (2015). Changes in the production of castings in Poland in the past half century in comparison with world trends”. in: Selected problems of process technologies in the industry. Częstochowa. Ed. Faculty of Production Engineering and Materials Technology of the Częstochowa University of Technology, 2015. Monograph. pp.71-79. ISBN: 978-83-63989-30-9.
[21] Soiński, M.S., Jakubus, A., Kordas, P. & Skurka, K. (2015). Production of castings in the world and in selected countries from 1999 to 2013. Archives of Foundry Engineering. 15(spec.1), 103-110. DOI: 10.1515/afe-2016-0017.
[22] Modern Casting. 35th Census of World Casting Production. December 2001. 38-39.
[23] Modern Casting. 36th Census of World Casting Production. December 2002. 22-24.
[24] Modern Casting. 37th Census of World Casting Production. December 2003. 23-25.
[25] Modern Casting. 38th Census of World Casting Production. December 2004. 25-27.
[26] Modern Casting. 39th Census of World Casting Production. December 2005. 27-29.
[27] Modern Casting. 40th Census of World Casting Production. December 2006. 28-31.
[28] Modern Casting. 41st Census of World Casting Production. December 2007. 22-25.
[29] Modern Casting. 42nd Census of World Casting Production. December 2008. 24-27
[30] Modern Casting. 43rd Census of World Casting Production. December 2009. 17-21.
[31] Modern Casting. 44th Census of World Casting Production. December 2010. 23-27.
[32] Modern Casting. 45th Census of World Casting Production. December 2011. 16-19.
[33] Modern Casting. 46th Census of World Casting Production. December 2012. 25-29.
[34] Modern Casting. 47th Census of World Casting Production. Dividing up the Global Market. December 2013. 18-23.
[35] Modern Casting. 48th Census of World Casting Production. Steady Growth in Global Output. December 2014. 17-21.
[36] Modern Casting. 49th Census of World Casting Production. Modest Growth in Worldwide Casting Market. December 2015. 26-31
[37] Modern Casting. 50th Census of World Casting Production. Global Casting Production Stagnant. December 2016. 25-29.
[38] Modern Casting. Census of World Casting Production. Global Casting Production Growth Stalls. December 2017. 24-28.
[39] Modern Casting. Census of World Casting Production. Global Casting Production Expands. December 2018. 23-26.
[40] Modern Casting. Census of World Casting Production. Total Casting Tons. Hits 112 Million. December 2019. 22- 25.
[41] Modern Casting. Census of World Casting Production Total Casting Tons Dip in 2019. January 2021. 28-30.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

M.S. Soiński
1
A. Jakubus
1

  1. The Jacob of Paradies University in Gorzów Wielkopolski, ul. Teatralna 25, 66-400 Gorzów Wielkopolski, Poland
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Abstrakt

This paper presents the study about defects found in industrial high silicon ductile iron. The microstructures were analysed using an optical microscope. Afterwards, a scanning electron microscope was used to analyse the chemical composition.The study also examined the origin of oxygen and what is the amount of oxygen in the cast iron.The amount of active oxygen was measured at two production processes. Firstly, at the end of melting process, and secondly, after the nodularization treatment. The research was carried out with different proportions of the raw materials. The focus was on determining the mechanism of the formation of slag defects to eliminate them in order to obtain ductile iron with increased silicon content of the highest possible quality. The research presented in this publication is a part of an implementation doctorate carried out in the METALPOL Foundry in Węgierska Górka (Poland). The presented research concerns the elaboration of initial parameters of liquid metal intended for processing into high-silicon ductile cast iron SiMo1000 type with aluminum and chromium additives.
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Bibliografia

[1] Kopyciński, D. (2015). Shaping the structure and mechanical properties of cast iron intended for operation in difficult conditions of use (selected issues). Katowice-Gliwice: Monography. Archives of Foundry Engineering. (in Polish).
[2] Kleiner, S. & Track K. (2010). SiMo 1000 - Ein aluminium - legiertes gusseisen für Hochtemperatur-anwendungen. Giesserei. 97, 28-34.
[3] Papis, K., Tunziniand, S., Menk, W. (2014). Cast iron alloys for exhaust applications. In 10th International Symposium on the Science and Processing of Cast Iron - SPCI10, November 2014. Mar del Plata, Argentina.
[4] Öberg, Ch., Zhu, B. & Jonsson, S. (2017). Plastic deformation and creep of two ductile cast irons, SiMo51 and SiMo1000, during thermal cycling with large strain. Materials Science Forum. 925, 361-368. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.925.361.
[5] Guzik, E. (2001). Cast iron refining processes, selected issues. Katowice: Archiwum Odlewnictwa PAN. (in Polish).
[6] Collective work (2013). Foundry's guide. Kraków: STOP. 138-139. (in Polish).
[7] Keivan A. Kasvayee, & Ghasemali E. (2017). Characterization and modeling of the mechanical behavior of high silicon ductile iron. Material Science & Engineering A. 708, 159-170. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2017.09.115.
[8] Li, D., Perrin,. R., Burger, G., McFarlan, D., Black, B., Logan, R. & Williams, R. (2004). Solidification behavior, microstructure, mechanical properties, hot oxidation and thermal fatigue resistance of high silicon SiMo nodular cast irons. SAE International, Warrendale, 1-12. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4271/2004-01-0792.
[9] Muller, J., Wolf, G. (2001). Optimierte magnesiumdrahtinjektionstechnik zur herstellung von hochwertigem gusseisen mit kugelgraphit aus kupolofenbasiseisn. Giessereiforschung. 53(3), 85-103.
[10] Hampl, J. & Elbert, T. (2010). On modelling of the effect of oxygen on graphite morphology and properties of modified cast irons. Archives of Foundry Engineering. 10(4), 55-60.
[11] Mocek, J., Chojecki, A. (2009). Changes in the gas atmosphere of the casting mould during pouring iron alloys. In XXXIII Scientific Founder's Day Conference. Kraków. (in Polish).
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

Ł. Dyrlaga
1 2
D. Kopyciński
1
E. Guzik
1

  1. AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Foundry Engineering, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland
  2. METALPOL Węgierska Górka ul. Kolejowa 6, 34-350 Węgierska Górka, Poland
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Abstrakt

The article presents results of research on the influence of the mould material on selected mechanical properties of wax models used for production of casting in investment casting method. The main goal was to compare the strength and hardness of samples produced in various media in order to analyse the applicability of the 3D printing technology as an alternative method of producing wax injection dies. To make the wax injection dies, it was decided to use a milled steel and 3D printed inserts made using FDM (Fused Deposition Modeling) / FFF (Fused Filament Fabrication) technology from HIPS (High Impact Polystyrene) and ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene). A semi-automatic vertical reciprocating injection moulding machine was used to produce the wax samples made of Freeman Flakes Wax Mixture – Super Pink. During injection moulding process, the mould temperature was measured each time before and after moulding with a pyrometer. Then, the samples were subjected to a static tensile test and a hardness test. It was shown that the mould material influences the strength properties of the wax samples, but not their final hardness.
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Bibliografia

[1] Campbell, J. (2015). Complete casting handbook: metal casting processes, techniques and design. (2nd ed.). Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
[2] Tamta, K. & Karunakar, D.B. (2020). Development of hybrid pattern material for investment casting process: an experimental investigation on improvement in pattern characteristics. Materials and Manufacturing Processes. 36(6), 744-751. DOI: 10.1080/10426914.2020.1854471.
[3] Bernat, L. & Popielarski, P. (2020). Identification of substitute thermophysical properties of gypsum mould. Archives of Foundry Engineering. 20(1), 5-8. DOI: 10.24425/afe.2020.131274.
[4] Guzera, J. (2010). Casting production in autoclaved gypsum moulds using investment casting method. Archives of Foundry Engineering. 10(3), 307-310. (in Polish).
[5] Sarbojeet, J. (2016). Crystallization behavior of waxes. Doctoral dissertation. Utah State University, Logan, United States of America.
[6] Unknown author, Investment casting process steps (lost wax). Retrieved January 12, 2021, from http://americancastingco.com/investment-casting-process.
[7] Ruwoldt, J., Humborstad Sørland, G., Simon, S., Oschmann, H-J. & Sjoblom, J. (2019). Inhibitor-wax interactions and PPD effect on wax crystallization: New approaches for GC/MS and NMR, and comparison with DSC, CPM, and rheometry. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering. 177. 53-68. DOI: 10.1016/j.petrol.2019.02.046
[8] Jung, T., Kim, J-N. & Kang, S-P. (2016). Influence of polymeric additives on paraffin waxes crystallization in model oils. Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering. 33(6), 1813-1822. DOI: https:://doi.org/10.1007/s11814-016-0052-3.
[9] Simnofske, D. & Mollenhauer, K. (2017). Effect of wax crystallization on complex modulus of modified bitumen after varied temperature conditioning rates. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 236. DOI: 10.1088/1757-899X/236/1/012003.
[10] Edwards, R.T. (1957). Crystal Habit of Paraffin Wax. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry. 49(4), 750-757. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/ie50568a042.
[11] Dantas Neto A.A., Gomes, E.A.S. & Barros Neto, E.L., Dantas, T.N.C. & Moura C.P.A.M. (2009). Determination of wax appearance temperature (WAT) in paraffin/solvent systems by photoelectric signal and viscosimetry. Brazilian Journal of Petroleum and Gas. 3(4), 149-157. ISSN: 1982- 0593.
[12] Unknown author, Freeman super pink flake wax: technical data sheet. Retrieved January 12, 2021, from https://www.freemanwax.com/datasheets/Injection/tdssuperpink.pdf.
[13] Unknown author, M-series-specification. Retrieved January 12, 2021, from https://support.zortrax.com/m-seriesspecification/.
[14] Clarke, E.W. (1951). Crystal Types of Pure Hydrocarbons in the Paraffin Wax Range. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry. 43(11), 2526–2535. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/ie50503a037
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

A. Kroma
1
P. Brzęk
1

  1. Poznan University of Technology, Institute of Materials Technology, Division of Foundry, Piotrowo 3, 61-138 Poznań, Poland
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Abstrakt

The paper presents FEM approach for comparative analyses of wall connections applied in cast grates used for charge transport in furnaces for heat and thermal-chemical treatment. Nine variants of wall connection were compared in term of temperature differences arising during cooling process and stresses caused by the differences. The presented comparative methodology consists of two steps. In first, the calculations of heat flow during cooling in oil for analysed constructions were carried out. As a result the temperature distributions vs cooling time in cross-sections of analysed wall connections were determined. In the second step, based on heat flow analyses, calculations of stresses caused by the temperature gradient in the wall connections were performed. The conducted calculations were used to evaluate an impact of thermal nodes reduction on maximum temperature differences and to quantitative comparison of various base design of the cast grate wall connection in term of level of thermal stresses and their distribution during cooling process. The obtained results clearly show which solution of wall connection should be applied in cast grate used for charge transport in real constructions and which of them should be avoided because the risk of high thermal stresses forming during cooling process.
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Bibliografia

[1] Lai, G.Y. (2007). High-Temperature Corrosion and Materials Applications. ASM International.
[2] Davis, J.R. (Ed.). (1997). Industrial Applications of HeatResistant Materials. In Davis, J.R. (Eds.), ASM Specialty Handbook - Heat-Resistant Materials (pp. 67-85). ASM International.
[3] Piekarski, B. (2012). Creep-resistant castings used in heat treatment furnaces. Szczecin: West Pomeranian University of Technology Publishing House. (in Polish).
[4] Ul-Hamid et al. (2006). Failure analysis of furnace tubes exposed to excessive temperature. Engineering Failure Analysis. 13(6), 1005-1021. DOI: 10.1016/j.engfailanal.2005.04.003.
[5] Reihani, A., Razavi, S.A., Abbasi, E. et al. (2013). Failure Analysis of welded radiant tubes made of cast heat-resisting steel. Journal of failure Analysis and Prevention. 13, 658–665. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11668-013-9741-y.
[6] Piekarski, B. (2010). Damage of heat-resistant castings in a carburizing furnace. Engineering Failure Analysis. 17(1), 143-149. DOI: 10.1016/j.engfailanal.2009.04.011.
[7] Nandwana, D., et al. (2010). Design, Finite Element analysis and optimization of HRC trays used in heat treatment process. In World Congress on Engineering 2010, June 30 - July 2, 2010 (pp. 1149-1154). London, U.K.: Newswood Limited.
[8] Sandeep, K., Ajit, K. & Mahesh, N.S. (2012). Improving productivity in a heat treatment shop for piston Pins. SASTECH Journal. 11(2), 38-46.
[9] Standard PN-EN 10295: 2004. Heat resistant steel castings.
[10] Bajwoluk, A. & Gutowski, P. (2019). Thermal stresses in the accessories of heat treatment furnaces vs cooling kinetics. Archives of Foundry Engineering. 19(3), 88-93, DOI: 10.24425/afe.2019.127146.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

A. Bajwoluk
1
P. Gutowski
1

  1. Mechanical Engineering Faculty, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Al. Piastów 19, 70-310 Szczecin, Polska
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Abstrakt

The paper is a summary of a project aimed at identifying and eliminating or minimizing the causes of frequent failures of the Krakow water supply network related to corrosion damage. The paper presents the method of searching for factors responsible for frequent corrosion damage. There were taken into account several factors that may destroy the pipes associated with corrosion processes, such as the composition of the water, aggressiveness of ground, or stray currents. The monitoring method of the corrosion processes applied to observe the condition of the water supply network was discussed. The study showed that the main problem appeared to be stray currents related to the electrical infrastructure widely present in a large city, such as a tram or railway network. To eliminate this threat, a cathodic protection system has been implemented to prevent further failures. There were also demonstrated results of research proving that the applied solutions are effective.
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Bibliografia

[1] Zimoch, I. (2008). Reliability Analysis of Water Distribution Subsystem. Journal of KONBiN. 7(4), 307-326.
[2] Jażdżewska, A., Gruszka, M., Mazur, R., Orlikowski, J. & Banaś, J. (2020). Determination of the effect of environmental factors on the corrosion of water distribution system based on analysis of on-line corrosion monitoring results. Archives of Metallurgy and Materials. 65(1), 109-116.
[3] Orlikowski, J., Zielinski, A., Darowicki, K., Krakowiak, S., Zakowski, K., Slepski, P., Jazdzewska, A., Gruszka, M. & J. Banas (2016). Research on causes of corrosion in the municipal water supply system. Case Studies in Construction Materials. 4, 108-115.
[4] Zakowski, K., Darowicki, K., Orlikowski, J., Jazdzewska, A., Krakowiak, S., Gruszka, M., & Banas, J. (2016). Electrolytic corrosion of water pipeline system in the remote distance from stray currents - Case study. Case Studies in Construction Materials. 4, 116-124.
[5] Jazdzewska, A., Darowicki, K., Orlikowski, J., Jazdzewska, A., Krakowiak, S., Zakowski, K., Gruszka, M., & Banas, J. (2016). Critical analysis of laboratory measurements and monitoring system of water-pipe network corrosion-case study. Case Studies in Construction Materials. 4, 102-107.
[6] Loewenthal, R.E., Morrison, I. & Wentzel, M.C. (2004). Control of corrosion and aggression in drinking water systems. Water Science and Technology. 49(2), 9-18. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2004.0075
[7] Booth, G.H., Cooper, A.W., Cooper, P.M. & Wakerley, D.S. (1967). Criteria of Soil Aggressiveness Towards Buried Metals. I. Experimental Methods. British Corrosion Journal. 2(3), 104-108. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1179/000705967798326957
[8] Bertolini, L., Carsana, M. & Pedeferri, P. (2007). Corrosion behaviour of steel in concrete in the presence of stray current. Corrosion Science. 49(3), 1056-1068. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.corsci.2006.05.048
[9] Chen, Z., Koleva D. & van Breugel, K. (2017). A review on stray current-induced steel corrosion in infrastructure. Corrosion Reviews. 35(6), 397-423. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/corrrev-2017-0009
[10] Cui, G., Li, ZL., Yang, C. & Wang, M. (2016). The influence of DC stray current on pipeline corrosion. Petroleum Science. 13(1), 135-145. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12182-015-0064-3
[11] Memon, M. (2013). Understanding Stray Current Mitigation, Testing and Maintenance on DC Powered Rail Transit Systems. In Proceedings of the 2013 Joint Rail Conference. 2013 Joint Rail Conference, April 15-18, 2013. Knoxville, Tennessee, USA: ASME.
[12] Zhu, Q., Cao, A., Zaifend, W., Song, J. & Shengli, C. (2011). Stray current corrosion in buried pipeline. Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials. 58(5), 234-237. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/00035591111167695
[13] M. Ormellese & A. Brenna (2017). Cathodic Protection and Prevention: Principles, Applications and Monitoring. Reference Module in Chemistry, Molecular Sciences and Chemical Engineering.
[14] Peng, P., Zeng, X., Leng, Y., Yu, K. & Ni, Y. (2020). A New On-line Monitoring Method for Stray Current of DC Metro System. IEEJ Transactions on Electrical and Electronic Engineering. 15(10), 1482-1492.
[15] Yang, L. (2008). Techniques for Corrosion Monitoring. (2nd Ed.). USA: Woodhead Publishing.
[16] Banaś, J., Mazurkiewicz, B., Solarski W., Lelek-Borkowska, U. (2018). Development of the optimal corrosion monitoring system for inner surface of production tubing. In: J. Lubas (Ed.), Development of optimal concepts for the development of unconventional deposits (pp. 78-158). Kraków: Instytut Nafty i Gazu. (in polish)
[17] Scully, J.R. (2000). Polarization Resistance Method for Determination of Instantaneous Corrosion Rates. Corrosion. 56(2), 199-218.
[18] Yang, L., Pan, Y., Dunn, D.S. & Sridhar, N. (2005). RealTime Monitoring of Carbon Steel Corrosion in Crude Oil and Brine Mixtures using Coupled Multielectrode Sensors. In Corrosion 2005, April 2005 (05293). Houston, Texas.
[19] A.S. G01.05, ASTM G1 - 03(2017)e1 Standard Practice for Preparing, Cleaning, and Evaluating Corrosion Test Specimens, ASTM, 2017, pp. 9.
[20] E.S.E. 12954:2019, General principles of cathodic protection of buried or immersed onshore metallic structures, CEN, 2019, pp. 44.
[21] E.S.E. 50162:2004, Protection against corrosion by stray current from direct current systems, CEN, 2004, pp. 44.
[22] Evitts, R.W. & Kennell, G.F. (2018). Chapter 15 - Cathodic Protection. In M. Kutz (Edt.), Handbook of Environmental Degradation of Materials (3rd Ed.) (pp. 301-321). UK, USA: William Andrew Publishing.
[23] Peabody, A.W. (2018). Control of Pipeline Corrosion. NACE E-Book
[24] Riskin, J. (2008). Chapter 2 - Corrosion and Protection of Underground and Underwater Structures Attacked by Stray Currents. In: J. Riskin (Edt.), Electrocorrosion and Protection of Metals (pp. 23-35). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

U. Lelek-Borkowska
1
M. Gruszka
2
J. Banaś
1

  1. AGH University of Science and Technology, Reymonta 23, 30-059 Krakow, Poland
  2. WMK S.A., Senatorska 1, 30-106 Krakow, Poland
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Abstrakt

Metallurgy is one of the key industries both in Russia and in the world. It has a significant influence on the situation in related industries. Therefore, the current state analysis of ferrous metallurgy production and its formation based on the short-term technological forecast is essential. Based on the foregoing, the research was aimed at analyzing the current state of ferrous metallurgy production in Russia and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the prospects for industry development in the short term. The research studies the state of the ferrous metallurgy production in Russia and abroad before the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as the volume of industrial production in ferrous metallurgy and the industry structure. The COVID-19 pandemic has triggered a serious global recession, necessitating an analysis of the forecast for the development of the ferrous metallurgy industry. The research concludes that the Russian ferrous metals market is so far affected to a lesser extent compared to the European one.
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Bibliografia

[1] Ryabov, I.V. (2013). Institutional factors of economic development in the steel industry in the Russian Federation. Ekonomika: vchera, segodnya, zavtra. 7-8, 59-71.
[2] Shatokha, V. (2016). Post-Soviet issues and sustainability of iron and steel industry in Eastern Europe. Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy. 126, 1-8.
[3] MIT Emerging Trends Report (2013). Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved from http://2013.forinnovations.org/upload/MIT_Technology_Review.pdf.
[4] Cuhls, K. (2003). From forecasting to foresight processes. new participative foresight activities in Germany. Journal of Forecasting. 22, 93-111.
[5] Harrington, E.C.Jr. (1965). The desirability function. Industrial quality control. 21(1), 494-498.
[6] Profile. 2017/2018. World steel association. Retrieved from https://www.worldsteel.org/en/dam/jcr:cea55824-c208-4d41-b387-6c233e95efe5/worldsteel+Profile+2017.pdf.
[7] World Steel Association (2018). Monthly crude steel and iron production statistics. Retrieved from https://www.worldsteel.org/publications/bookshop/productdetails.~2018-Monthly-crude-steel-and-iron-productionstatistics~PRODUCT~statistics2018~.html.
[8] Metalinfo.ru (2018). China continues to cut off excessive capacity. Retrieved from http://www.metalinfo.ru/ru/news/100765.
[9] World Steel Association (2017). Steel Statistical Yearbook 2017. Retrieved from https://www.worldsteel.org/en/dam/jcr:3e275c73-6f11-4e7f-a5d8-23d9bc5c508f/Steel% 2520Statistical%2520Yearbook%25202017_updated%2520version090518.pdf.
[10] World Steel Association (2017). 50 years of the World Steel Association. World Steel Association. Retrieved from https://www.worldsteel.org/en/dam/jcr:80fe4bd6-4eff-4690-96e6-534500d35384/50%2520years%2520of%2520worldsteel_EN.pdf.
[11] Dudin, M.N., Bezbakh, V.V., Galkina, M.V., Rusakova, E.P., Zinkovsky, S.B. (2019). Stimulating Innovation Activity in Enterprises within the Metallurgical Sector: the Russian and International Experience. TEM Journal. 8(4), 1366-1370.
[12] Kharlamov, A.S. (2012). Competitiveness issues of metallurgy. Position of Russia. Monograph. Moscow: Nauchnaya Kniga.
[13] Golubev, S.S, Chebotarev, S.S., Sekerin, V.D. & Gorokhova, A.E. (2017). Development of Employee Incentive Programmes regarding Risks Taken and Individual performance. International Journal of Economic Research. 14(7), 37-46.
[14] Deloitte (2020). Overview of the ferrous metallurgy market. Retrieved from https://www2.deloitte.com/ru/ru/pages/research-center/articles/overview-of-steel-and-ironmarket-2020.html.
[15] Katunin, V.V., Zinovieva, N.G., Ivanova, I.M., Petrakova, T.M. (2021). The main performance indicators of the ferrous metallurgy of Russia in 2020. Ferrous metallurgy. Bulletin of Scientific. Technical and Economic Information. 77(4), 367- 392. DOI: https://doi.org/10.32339/0135-5910-2021-4-367-392.
[16] National Credit Ratings (NCR) (2021). The metamorphoses of the pandemic. The forecast of recovery of the Russian economy branches as of June 2, 2021. Analytical Research. June 2, 2021. Retrieved from https://www.ratings.ru/files/research//corps/NCR_Recovery_Jun2021.pdf 24.
[17] Mingazov, S. (2021). Russian metallurgists have doubled payments to the budget. Forbes. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.ru/newsroom/biznes/430855-rossiyskiemetallurgi-udvoili-vyplaty-v-byudzhet.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

S.S. Golubev
1
V.D. Sekerin
1
A.E. Gorokhova
1
D.A. Shevchenko
1
A.Z. Gusov
2

  1. Moscow Polytechnic University, Bolshaya Semenovskaya Street, 38, Moscow, 107023, Russian Federation
  2. Peoples Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), Miklukho-Maklaya Street, 6, Moscow, 117198, Russian Federation
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Abstrakt

The objective of this work is to gain a deeper understanding of the separation effects and particle movement during filtration of non-metallic inclusions in aluminum casting on a macroscopic level. To understand particle movement, complex simulations are performed using Flow 3D. One focus is the influence of the filter position in the casting system with regard to filtration efficiency. For this purpose, a real filter geometry is scanned with computed tomography (CT) and integrated into the simulation as an STL file. This allows the filtration processes of particles to be represented as realistically as possible. The models provide a look inside the casting system and the flow conditions before, in, and after the filter, which cannot be mapped in real casting tests. In the second part of this work, the casting models used in the simulation are replicated and cast in real casting trials. In order to gain further knowledge about filtration and particle movement, non-metallic particles are added to the melt and then separated by a filter. These particles are then detected in the filter by metallographic analysis. The numerical simulations of particle movement in an aluminum melt during filtration, give predictions in reasonable agreement with experimental measurements.
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Bibliografia

[1] Ishikawa, K., Okuda, H. & Kobayashi, Y. (1997). Creep behaviors of highly pure aluminum at lower temperatures. Materials Science and Engineering A. 234-236, 154-156.
[2] Ishikawa, K. & Kobayashi, Y. (2004). Creep and rupture behavior of a commercial aluminum-magnesium alloy A5083 at constant applied stress. Materials Science and Engineering A, 387-389, 613-617.
[3] Dobes, F. & Milicka, K. (2004). Comparison of thermally activated overcoming of barriers in creep of aluminum and its solid solutions. Materials Science and Engineering A. 387-389, 595-598.
[4] Requena, G. & Degischer, H.P. (2006). Creep behavior of unreinforced and short fiber reinforced AlSi12CuMgNi piston alloy. Materials Science and Engineering A. 420, 265-275.
[5] Li, L.T., Lin, Y.C., Zhou, H.M. & Jiang, Y.Q. (2013). Modeling the high-temperature creep behaviors of 7075 and 2124 aluminum alloys by continuum damage mechanics model. Computational Materials Science. 73, 72-78.
[6] Fernandez-Gutierrez, R. & Requena, G.C. (2014). The effect of spheroidization heat treatment on the creep resistance of a cast AlSi12CuMgNi piston alloy. Materials Science and Engineering A. 598, 147-153.
[7] Zhang, Q., Zhang, W. & Liu, Y. (2015). Evaluation and mathematical modeling of asymmetric tensile and compressive creep in aluminum alloy ZL109. Materials Science and Engineering A. 628, 340-349.
[8] Wang, Q., Zhang, L., Xu, Y., Liu, C., Zhao, X., Xu, L., Yang, Y. & Cia, Y. (2020). Creep aging behavior of retrogression and re-aged 7150 aluminum alloy. Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China. 30(10), 2599-2612.
[9] Ahn, C., Jo, I., Ji, C., Cho, S., Mishra, B. & Lee, E. (2020). Creep behavior of high-pressure die-cast AlSi10MnMg aluminum alloy. Materials Characterization. 167, 110495.
[10] Zhang, M., Lewis, R.J. & Gibeling, J.C. (2021). Mechanisms of creep deformation in a rapidly solidified Al-Fe-V-Si alloy. Materials Science and Engineering A. 805, 140796.
[11] Golshan, A.M.A., Aroo, H. & Azadi, M. (2021). Sensitivity analysis for effects of heat treatment, stress, and temperature on AlSi12CuNiMg aluminum alloy behavior under force-controlled creep loading. Applied Physics A. 127, 48.
[12] Pal, K., Navin, K. & Kurchania, R. (2020). Study of structural and mechanical behavior of Al-ZrO2 metal matrix nano-composites prepared by powder metallurgy method. Materials today: Proceeding. 26(Part 2), 2714-2719.
[13] Shuvho, M.B.A. Chowdhury, M.A., Kchaou, M., Rahman, A. & Islam, M.A. (2020). Surface characterization and mechanical behavior of aluminum-based metal matrix composite reinforced with nano Al2O3, SiC, TiO2 particles. Chemical Data Collections. 28, 100442.
[14] Azadi, M. & Aroo, H. (2019).Creep properties and failure mechanisms of aluminum alloy and aluminum matrix silicon oxide nano-composite under working conditions in engine pistons. Materials Research Express. 6, 115020.
[15] Cadek, J., Oikawa, H. & Gustek, V. (1995).Threshold creep behavior of discontinuous aluminum and aluminum alloy matrix composites: an overview. Materials Science and Engineering A. 190, 9-23.
[16] Spigarelli, S. & Paoletti, C. (2018). A new model for the description of creep behavior of aluminum-based composites reinforced with nano-sized particles. Composites Part A. 112, 346-355.
[17] Gupta, R. & Daniel, B.S.S.(2018). Impression creep behavior of ultrasonically processed in-situ Al3Ti reinforced aluminum composite. Materials Science and Engineering A. 733, 257-266.
[18] Gonga, D., Jianga, L., Guanc, J., Liua, K., Yua, Z. & Wua, G. (2020). Stable second phase: the key to high-temperature creep performance of particle reinforced aluminum matrix composite. Materials Science and Engineering A. 770, 138551.
[19] Zhao, Q., Zhang, H., Zhang, X., Qiu, F. & Jiang, Q. (2018). Enhanced elevated-temperature mechanical properties of Al-Mn-Mg containing TiC nano-particles by pre-strain and concurrent precipitation. Materials Science and Engineering A. 718, 305-310.
[20] Bhoi, N., Singh, H. & Pratap, S. (2020). Developments in the aluminum metal matrix composites reinforced by micro/nano-particles - A review. Journal of Composite Materials. 54(6), 813-833.
[21] Azadi, M., Zomorodipour, M. & Fereidoon, A. (2021). Study of effect of loading rate on tensile properties of aluminum alloy and aluminum matrix nano-composite. Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 51(1), 9-18.
[22] Bhowmik, A., Dey, D. & Biswas, A. (2021). Characteristics study of physical, mechanical and tribological behavior of SiC/TiB2 dispersed aluminum matrix composite. Silicon. 06 January. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12633-020-00923-2.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

B. Baumann
1
A. Keßler
1
E. Hoppach
1
G. Wolf
1
M. Szucki
1
O. Hilger
2

  1. Foundry Institute, Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg, 4 Bernhard-von-Cotta-Str., 09599 Freiberg, Germany
  2. Simcast GmbH, Westring 401, 42329 Wuppertal, Germany
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Abstrakt

Aluminum alloys, due to appropriate strength to weight ratio, are widely used in various industries, including automotive engines. This type of structures, due to high-temperature operations, are affected by the creep phenomenon; thus, the limited lifetime is expected for them. Therefore, in designing these types of parts, it is necessary to have sufficient information about the creep behavior and the material strength. One way to improve the properties is to add nanoparticles and fabricate a metal-based nano-composite. In the present research, failure mechanisms and creep properties of piston aluminum alloys were experimentally studied. In experiments, working conditions of combustion engine pistons were simulated. The material was composed of the aluminum matrix, which was reinforced by silicon oxide nanoparticles. The stir-casting method was used to produce the nano-composite by aluminum alloys and 1 wt.% of nanoparticles. The extraordinary model included the relationships between the stress and the temperature on the strain rate and the creep lifetime, as well as various theories such as the regression model. For this purpose, the creep test was performed on the standard sample at different stress levels and a specific temperature of 275 ℃. By plotting strain-time and strain rate-time curves, it was found that the creep lifetime decreased by increasing stress levels from 75 MPa to 125 MPa. Moreover, by comparing the creep test results of nanoparticle-reinforced alloys and nanoparticle-free alloys, 40% fall was observed in the reinforced material lifetime under 75 MPa. An increase in the strain rate was also seen under the mentioned stress. It is noteworthy that under 125 MPa, the creep lifetime and the strain rate of the reinforced alloy increased and decreased, respectively, compared to the piston alloy. Finally, by analyzing output data by the Minitab software, the sensitivity of the results to input parameters was investigated.
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Bibliografia

[1] Ishikawa, K., Okuda, H. & Kobayashi, Y. (1997). Creep behaviors of highly pure aluminum at lower temperatures. Materials Science and Engineering A. 234-236, 154-156.
[2] Ishikawa, K. & Kobayashi, Y. (2004). Creep and rupture behavior of a commercial aluminum-magnesium alloy A5083 at constant applied stress. Materials Science and Engineering A, 387-389, 613-617.
[3] Dobes, F. & Milicka, K. (2004). Comparison of thermally activated overcoming of barriers in creep of aluminum and its solid solutions. Materials Science and Engineering A. 387-389, 595-598.
[4] Requena, G. & Degischer, H.P. (2006). Creep behavior of unreinforced and short fiber reinforced AlSi12CuMgNi piston alloy. Materials Science and Engineering A. 420, 265-275.
[5] Li, L.T., Lin, Y.C., Zhou, H.M. & Jiang, Y.Q. (2013). Modeling the high-temperature creep behaviors of 7075 and 2124 aluminum alloys by continuum damage mechanics model. Computational Materials Science. 73, 72-78.
[6] Fernandez-Gutierrez, R. & Requena, G.C. (2014). The effect of spheroidization heat treatment on the creep resistance of a cast AlSi12CuMgNi piston alloy. Materials Science and Engineering A. 598, 147-153.
[7] Zhang, Q., Zhang, W. & Liu, Y. (2015). Evaluation and mathematical modeling of asymmetric tensile and compressive creep in aluminum alloy ZL109. Materials Science and Engineering A. 628, 340-349.
[8] Wang, Q., Zhang, L., Xu, Y., Liu, C., Zhao, X., Xu, L., Yang,Y. & Cia, Y. (2020). Creep aging behavior of retrogression and re-aged 7150 aluminum alloy. Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China. 30(10), 2599-2612.
[9] Ahn, C., Jo, I., Ji, C., Cho, S., Mishra, B. & Lee, E. (2020). Creep behavior of high-pressure die-cast AlSi10MnMg aluminum alloy. Materials Characterization. 167, 110495.
[10] Zhang, M., Lewis, R.J. & Gibeling, J.C. (2021). Mechanisms of creep deformation in a rapidly solidified Al-Fe-V-Si alloy. Materials Science and Engineering A. 805, 140796.
[11] Golshan, A.M.A., Aroo, H. & Azadi, M. (2021). Sensitivity analysis for effects of heat treatment, stress, and temperature on AlSi12CuNiMg aluminum alloy behavior under force-controlled creep loading. Applied Physics A. 127, 48.
[12] Pal, K., Navin, K. & Kurchania, R. (2020). Study of structural and mechanical behavior of Al-ZrO2 metal matrix nano-composites prepared by powder metallurgy method. Materials today: Proceeding. 26(Part 2), 2714-2719.
[13] Shuvho, M.B.A. Chowdhury, M.A., Kchaou, M., Rahman, A. & Islam, M.A. (2020). Surface characterization and mechanical behavior of aluminum-based metal matrix composite reinforced with nano Al2O3, SiC, TiO2 particles. Chemical Data Collections. 28, 100442.
[14] Azadi, M. & Aroo, H. (2019).Creep properties and failure mechanisms of aluminum alloy and aluminum matrix silicon oxide nano-composite under working conditions in engine pistons. Materials Research Express. 6, 115020.
[15] Cadek, J., Oikawa, H. & Gustek, V. (1995).Threshold creep behavior of discontinuous aluminum and aluminum alloy matrix composites: an overview. Materials Science and Engineering A. 190, 9-23.
[16] Spigarelli, S. & Paoletti, C. (2018). A new model for the description of creep behavior of aluminum-based composites reinforced with nano-sized particles. Composites Part A. 112, 346- 355.
[17] Gupta, R. & Daniel, B.S.S.(2018). Impression creep behavior of ultrasonically processed in-situ Al3Ti reinforced aluminum composite. Materials Science and Engineering A. 733, 257-266.
[18] Gonga, D., Jianga, L., Guanc, J., Liua, K., Yua, Z. & Wua, G.(2020). Stable second phase: the key to high-temperature creep performance of particle reinforced aluminum matrix composite. Materials Science and Engineering A. 770, 138551.
[19] Zhao, Q., Zhang, H., Zhang, X., Qiu, F. & Jiang, Q. (2018). Enhanced elevated-temperature mechanical properties of Al-Mn-Mg containing TiC nano-particles by pre-strain and concurrent precipitation. Materials Science and Engineering A. 718, 305-310.
[20] Bhoi, N., Singh, H. & Pratap, S. (2020). Developments in the aluminum metal matrix composites reinforced by micro/nano-particles - A review. Journal of Composite Materials. 54(6), 813- 833.
[21] Azadi, M., Zomorodipour, M. & Fereidoon, A. (2021). Study of effect of loading rate on tensile properties of aluminum alloy and aluminum matrix nano-composite. Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 51(1), 9-18.
[22] Bhowmik, A., Dey, D. & Biswas, A. (2021). Characteristics study of physical, mechanical and tribological behavior of SiC/TiB2 dispersed aluminum matrix composite. Silicon. 06 January. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12633-020-00923-2.


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Autorzy i Afiliacje

M. Azadi
1
ORCID: ORCID
A. Behmanesh
1
H. Aroo
1

  1. Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Semnan University, Iran
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Abstrakt

The influence of rapid solidification from the liquid state on the structure of Al71Ni24Fe5 alloy was studied. The samples were prepared by induction melting (ingots) and high pressure die casting into a copper mold (plates). The structure was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), light microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The mechanism of crystallization was described on the basis of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) heating and cooling curves, XRD patterns, isothermal section of Al-Ni-Fe alloys at 850°C and binary phase diagram of Al-Ni alloys. The fragmentation of the structure was observed for rapidly solidified alloy in a form of plates. Additionally, the presence of decagonal quasicrystalline phase D-Al70.83Fe9.83Ni19.34 was confirmed by phase analysis of XRD patterns, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT) of transmission electron microscopy images. The metastable character of D-Al70.83Fe9.83Ni19.34 phase was observed because of the lack of thermal effects on the DSC curves. The article indicates the differences with other research works and bring up to date the knowledge about Al71Ni24Fe5 alloys produced by two different cooling rates.
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Bibliografia

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[5] Sukhova, O.V., Polonskyy, V.A. & Ustinovа, K.V. (2017). Structure formation and corrosion behaviour of quasicrystalline Al-Ni-Fe alloys. Physics and Chemistry of Solidstate. 18(2), 222-227. DOI: 10.15330/pcss.18.2.222-227.
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[8] Naglič, I., Samardžija, Z., Delijić, K., Kobe, S., Dubois, J.M., Leskovar, B. & Markoli, B. (2017). Metastable quasicrystals in Al–Mn alloys containing copper, magnesium and silicon. Journal of Material Science. 52, 13657-13668. DOI: 10.1007/s10853-017-1477-8.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

K. Młynarek
1
T. Czeppe
2
R. Babilas
1

  1. Department of Engineering Materials and Biomaterials, Silesian University of Technology, Konarskiego 18a, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
  2. Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science of Polish Academy of Sciences, 25 Reymonta 5 St., 30-059 Kraków, Poland
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Abstrakt

Plasma oxidation, similarly to anodic oxidation (anodizing), are classified as electrochemical surface treatment of metals such as Al, Mg, Ti and their alloys. This type of treatment is used to make surface of castings, plastically processed products, shaped with incremental methods to suitable for certain requirements. The most important role of the micro plasma coating is to protect the metal surface against corrosion. It is well known that coating of aluminium alloys containing silicon using anodic oxidation causes significant difficulties. They are linked to the eutectic nature of this alloy and result in a lack of coverage in silicon-related areas. The coating structure in these areas is discontinuous. In order to eliminate this phenomenon, it is required to apply oxidation coatings using the PEO (Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation) method. It allows a consistent, crystalline coating to be formed. This study presents the mechanical properties of the coatings applied to Al-Si alloy using the PEO method. As part of the testing, the coating thickness, microhardness and scratch resistance were determined. On the basis of the results obtained, it was concluded that the thickness of the coatings complies with the requirements of conventional anodizing. Additionally, microhardness values exceeded the results obtained with standard methods.
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Bibliografia

[1] Famiyeh, L. & Huang, H. (2019). Plasma electrolytic oxidation coatings on aluminum alloys: microstructures, properties, and applications. Modern Concepts in Material Science. 2(1), 1-13. DOI: 10.33552/MCMS.2019.02.000526.
[2] Sieber, M., Simchen, F., Morgenstern, R., Scharf, I. & Lampke, T. (2018). Plasma electrolytic oxidation of high-strength aluminium alloys-substrate effect on wear and corrosion performance. Metals. 8(5), 356. DOI: 10.3390/met8050356.
[3] Matykina, E., Arrabal, R., Mohedano, M., Mingo, B., Gonzalez, J., Pardo, A. & Merino, M.C. (2017). Recent advances in energy efficient PEO processing of aluminium alloys. Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China. 27(7) 1439-1454. DOI: 10.1016/S1003-6326(17)60166-3.
[4] Agureev, L., Savushkina, S., Ashmarin, A., Borisov, A., Apelfeld, A., Anikin, K., Tkachenko, N., Gerasimov, M., Shcherbakov, A., Ignatenko, V. & Bogdashkina, N. (2018). Study of plasma electrolytic oxidation coatings on aluminum composites. Metals. 8(6), 459. DOI: 10.3390/met8060459.
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

P. Długosz
1
A. Garbacz-Klempka
2
J. Piwowońska
1
P. Darłak
3
M. Młynarczyk
3

  1. Lukasiewicz Research Network - Krakow Institute of Technology, 73 Zakopiańska Str. 30-418 Cracow, Poland
  2. AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Foundry Engineering, Reymonta 23 Str., 30-059 Kraków, Poland
  3. AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Foundry Engineering, 23 Reymonta Str., 30-059 Kraków, Poland
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Abstrakt

Investment casting is very well-known manufacturing process for producing relatively thin and multifarious industrial components with high dimensional tolerances as well as admirable surface finish. Investment casting process is further comprised of sub-processes including pattern making, shell making, dewaxing, shell backing, melting and pouring. These sub-processes are usually followed by heat treatment, finishing as well as testing & measurement of castings. Investment castings are employed in many industrial sectors including aerospace, automobile, bio-medical, chemical, defense, etc. Overall market size of investment castings in world is nearly 12.15 billion USD and growing at a rate of 2.8% every year. India is among the top five investment casting producers in the world, and produces nearly 4% (considering value of castings) of global market. Rajkot (home town of authors) is one of largest clusters of investment casting in India, and has nearly 175 investment casting foundries that is almost 30% of investment casting foundries of India. An industrial survey of nearly 25% of investment casting foundries of Rajkot cluster has been conducted in the year 2019-20 in order to get better insight related to 5 Cs (Capacity; Capability; Competency; Concerns; Challenges) of investment casting foundries located in the cluster. Specific set of questionnaires was design for the survey to address 5 Cs of investment casting foundries of Rajkot cluster, and their inputs were recorded during the in-person survey. The industrial survey yielded in providing better insight related to 5 Cs of foundries in Rajkot cluster. It will also help investment casting producer to identify the capabilities and quality issues as well as leads to benchmarking respective foundry.
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Bibliografia

[1] Market Publishers (2020). Investment Casting Market Size, Share & Trends Analysis Report By Application (Aerospace & Defense, Energy Technology), By Region (North America, Europe, APAC, Central & South America, MEA), And Segment Forecasts, 2020 – 2027, 2020. Retrieved September, 2021, from https://pdf.marketpublishers.com/grand/investment-casting-market-size-share-trends-analysis-report-by-application-by-region-n-segment-forecasts-2020-2027.pdf
[2] Investment Casting Institute (2021). INCAST International Magazine of the Investment Casting Institute and the European Investment Casters Federation, 2021, XXXIV. Retrieved September, 2021, from https://www.investmentcasting.org/current-issue-public.html
[3] Online Learning Resources in Casting Design and Simulation. Retrieved September, 2021, from www.efoundry.iitb.ac.in
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Autorzy i Afiliacje

A.V. Sata
1
N.R. Maheta
1

  1. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Marwadi University, India

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